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定语从句总复习课件

课件 时间:2018-04-12 我要投稿
【www.ruiwen.com - 课件】

  定语从句,就是两句话合成一句话.小编收集了定语从句总复习课件,欢迎阅读。

  以定语从句的形式合并这两句The factory lies in the west of the city. His father has ever worked there.

  定语从句,就是两句话合成一句话.第一句话中有个the factory,第二句话中有there 但这个there 所指的就是the factory.照答案的意思就是将句子改成意思为“这个我爸爸曾工作过的工厂坐落在城市的西边”,所以可以定下先行词,就是the factory.在此,我想说一句在难度不大的句子中,必须先找到先行词,一般来说,先行词比较好找,你可以翻译两句话的意思,再考虑这两句话的相同处.把你的句子作为例句吧.第一句:这个工厂坐落在城市的西边.第二句,我爸爸曾在这里(这个工厂)工作.两句话的相同处为工厂,那么可以确定先行词为the factory..(也可以找两句话中相同的词,不过不太实用,像对于你的这个例子就不实用)那么第一句话不变,我们把第二句话话原是先行词(The factory)的部分去掉(就是把第二句的there去掉),然后,把修改过的第二句话移到第一句话的先行词后,并在第一句话的先行词后加上一个合适的关系代词(如that which where who why 等),那么就是【先行词+ 关系代词+定语从句(也就是修改后的第二句话)】当然,修改后的第二句话之后还要跟上第一句话的剩下部分,这样一个基本的定语从句就完成了.

  接下来是关于选择合适的关系代词的问题.我们要考虑先行词在定语从句中的成分.在例句中,也就是找出the factory 在第二句话中所做的成分.因为有there ,这很好判断,就是地点状语,所以,关系代词只能用where.这样就可以确定关系代词了.

  当先行词在定语从句中充当地点状语,那么关系代词是用where

  若为时间状语,用when;原因状语,用why;

  当先行词是人且先行词在定语从句中做主语,关系代词可用who that

  当先行词是人且在定语从句中做宾语,关系代词:who that whom或省略不用

  还有情况,就是关系代词只能用that 、which 、whom 、who、why、when、where的情况,因为太长,而且,语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常

  出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

  关系副词有:when, where, why等。

  18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

  1)who, whom, that

  这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语和宾语。例如:

  Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

  He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

  2) whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换)。例如:

  They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

  Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

  3)which, that所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如:

  A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.

  农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

  The package (which / that)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

  18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句

  关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

  1)关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用。例如:

  There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

  Beijing is the place where(in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

  Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

  2)that代替关系副词,可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介+which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略。例如:

  His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

  He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.

  他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

  18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词

  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

  This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。

  I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘记与你共事的日子。

  判断改错:

  (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

  (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

  (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

  (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。

  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

  例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one

  例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one

  答案:例1 D,例2 A

  例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

  例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

  18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句

  1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如:

  This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

  The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.

  这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

  2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如:

  Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year.

  查理史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

  My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.

  我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

  This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

  3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。例如:

  He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.

  他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

  Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

  说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

  18.5 介词+关系词

  1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。

  2)that前不能有介词。

  3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。例如:

  This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。

  This is the house where I lived two years ago.

  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗?

  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

  18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句

  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。例如:

  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

  The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来,这对我们人类很重要。

  典型例题

  1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

  A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he

  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。

  2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

  A. what B. which C. that D. it

  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

  3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..

  A. that B. which  C. as  D. it

  答案B. as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

  (1)as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。

  (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

  as 的用法

  例1. the same…as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。例如:

  I have got into the same trouble as he (has). 我碰到了跟他一样的麻烦。

  例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。例如:

  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 如我们所知,吸烟有害健康。

  As is known, smoking is harmful to one's health.

  As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

  18.7 先行词和关系词二合一

  1) Whoever spits in public will be punished here. (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)

  2) The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.(what 可以用all that代替)

  18.8 what/whatever; that/what; who/whoever

  1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything。例如:

  What you want has been sent here. 你要的动词都送来了。

  Whatever you want makes no difference to me. 不管你要什么,跟我没什么关系。

  2) who= the person that  whoever= anyone who。例如:

  (错)Who breaks the law will be punished.

  (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.

  (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished. 王子犯法,与庶民同罪。

  (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear. 谁抢了银行还不清楚。

  3) that 和 what

  当that引导定语从句时,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从句,用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。例如:

  I think(that)you will like the stamps. 我想你会喜欢这些邮票的。

  What we need is more practice. 我们需要的是更多的实践。

  18.9 关系代词that 的用法

  1)不用that的情况

  a) 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如:

  (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.

  b) 介词后不能用。例如:

  We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。

  We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

  2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况

  a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。

  b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。

  c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。

  d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.

  e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。例如:

  All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。

  Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。


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